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In Reply to: RE: Corrections posted by J. Phelan on March 16, 2017 at 15:55:11
From the link below (some images are missing- see the link):
Often erroneously referred to as "digital amplification", Class D amplifiers represent the zenith of amplifier efficiency, with rates in excess of 90% being achieved in the real world. First things first: why is it referred to Class D if "digital amplification" is a misnomer? It was simply the next letter in the alphabet, with Class C being utilized in non-audio applications. More importantly, how is 90%+ efficiency possible? While all the amplifier classes previously mentioned have one or more output devices active all the time, even when the amplifier is effectively idle, Class D amplifiers rapidly switch the output devices between the off and on state; as an example, Class T designs, which are an implementation of Class D designed by Tripath as opposed to a formal class, utilize switching rates on the order of 50MHz. The output devices are typically controlled by pulse width modulation: square waves of varying widths are produced by a modulator, which represents the analog signal to be reproduced. By tightly controlling the output devices in this way, efficiency of 100% is theoretically possible (although obviously not achievable in the real world).
Class D TopologyIQ M300 Amplifier
Example of a full bridge Class D circuit (left; sourced from sound.westhost.com), and the IQ M300 Class D amplifier, a pint sized 300W wonder (right).
Delving deeper into the world of Class D you'll also find mention of analog and digital controlled amplifiers. Analog-controlled Class D amplifiers have an analog input signal and an analog control system, usually with some degree of feedback error correction present. On the other hand, digitally controlled Class D amplifiers utilize digitally generated control that switches a power stage with no error control (those that do have an error control can be shown to be topologically equivalent to an analog-controlled class D with a DAC in front). Overall, it's worth noting that analog controlled Class D tends to have a performance advantage over its digital counterpart, as they generally offer lower output impedance and an improved distortion profile.
Next, there is the (not so) small matter of the output filter: this is generally an L-C circuit (inductor & capacitor) placed between the amplifier and the speakers in order to mitigate the noise associated with Class D operation. The filter is of considerable importance: shoddy design can compromise efficiency, reliability, and audio quality. In addition, feedback after the output filter has benefits. While designs that do not utilize feedback at this stage can have their response tuned to a particular impedance, when such amplifiers are presented with a complex load (i.e. a real world loudspeaker as opposed to a resistor), frequency response can vary considerably depending on the loudspeaker load it sees. Feedback stabilizes this issue, ensuring a smooth response into complex loads.
Ultimately, the complexity of Class D has its rewards: efficiency, and as a good consequence, less weight. As relatively little energy is wasted as heat, much less heat sinking is required. Ratcheting that up a notch, many Class D amplifiers are used in conjunction with switch mode power supplies (SMPS). Like the output stage, the power supply itself can be rapidly switched on and off to regulate voltage, leading to further gains in efficiency and the ability to shed weight relatively to traditional analog / linear power supplies. Taken together, it's possible for even high powered Class D amplifiers to weigh only a few pounds. The disadvantage of SMPS power supplies over traditional linear supplies is the former typically don't have much dynamic headroom. Our limited testing of Class D amps with linear supplies vs SMPS supplies have shown this to be true where two comparably rated power amps both delivered rated power, but the one with the linear supply was able to produce higher dynamic power levels. Still SMPS designs are becoming more commonplace now, and you can expect to see more high powered, next generation Class D amplifiers employing them.
This piece offers more proof that there are 'digitally-controlled amplifiers', which the link states.
IOW, not a digital amp, but a digitally controlled amp. No worries there.
But when referring to digital-controlled, it doesn't say 'analog'.
But as any technician can tell you, there's a huge difference between being 'all digital' and 'digitally-controlled'!
I play in a band and have a variety of synthesizers. Most are entirely analog but a few are digitally-controlled. However despite the digital control they are still considered analog synths because the oscillators and filters and such are still analog despite the digital control.
Much the same is going on with class D amps. As I've mentioned several times, the switching means that class D uses lends itself quite well to use with a digital input (with no analog input). But to get the output transistors to switch properly from the bit stream of the digital source there is an analog conversion system employed. Further, the usual considerations of power supply voltage, the risetime of the output devices and how long it takes for them to shut off, plus the stripping of the switching frequency from the signal at the output of the amp are all concerns in the analog domain.
Its easy to understand how a person might think that such an amplifier is a 'digital amp' but that moniker is erroneous as that is not how the amp works.
I think your confusion here comes from the fact that analog processes cover a lot more ground than just a simple audio signal! For example if there is a reflection on a transmission line you have to use analog techniques to tame it- if you don't, the digital system in which the transmission line (an analog device in itself BTW) resides will generate errors.
There is no analog stage - as John Atkinson, Robert Harley and the schematics show.
Its a lot more than just an audio signal...
Are you aware that the process of extracting data from a CD or magnetic disk drive is also an analog process?
We're not talking about those things. This is all-new technology, invented by the Danish (TacT Millennium -1998). Robert Greene of TAS reviewed it -twice.
You really don't have any idea do you!
I don't need an idea. These products are real-world, accept or not...
You don't to be confused with the facts huh?
Alright- I'm not going to argue with you. You don't want to know and apparently that can't be helped by your own admission.
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